The end of the First World War favored in Italy a rethinking of its place in the European framework. This was true for both of the nationalism that would lead to fascist totalitarianism and of the revision and reworking initiated by liberal, democratic and socialist cultures and culminating in Giustizia e Libertà and democratic anti-fascism. In the period between the end of the conflict and the Ventotene Manifesto, the relationship between the global framework and the European framework, and between the latter and the Italian framework, was fine-tuned. Francesco Saverio Nitti, Luigi Einaudi, Giovanni Agnelli and Attilio Cabiati, Ugo La Malfa, Carlo Rosselli, Altiero Spinelli, Ernesto Rossi and Eugenio Colorni all contributed to this process. The Italian and European question thus became one of the central points of reflection. They laid the bricks that built an alternative to the nationalism of fascism on a continental level, resulting in the proposal of a federal Europe. The systematization proposed by these cultures would have influenced not a little in the definition of the European proposal by the Italian side and the contribution that derived in the achievements of the second postwar period.